The Proficient level is the goal for student performance on the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2012). With only 25% of California's grade four students performing at or above the Proficient level on the 2011 English language arts section of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement tests, too many third-grade students cannot read at grade level. California's Hispanic students fared worse, with only 13% of fourth-grade students performing at or above the Proficient level. Might afterschool programs (ASP) be an opportunity to combat the achievement gap and help ensure all students are reading by the end of third grade? This mixedmethods study used California Standards Test (CST) Comprehension scores, observation, and case studies at a Northern California school, to explore the following questions: 1. Is there a significant difference, as measured by CST scores, in comprehension achievement between third through fifth grade students in an afterschool program and those not in an afterschool program? x 2. Is there a significant difference in comprehension achievement between Hispanic students and non-Hispanic students attending Ross Elementary? 3. In what ways does the afterschool program bolster reading comprehension success? The quantitative findings for Questions 1 and 2 showed that students attending the ASP did not have a significant difference on CST comprehension scores. Question 3, in a qualitative study, provided an opportunity to view students in the afterschool program through the lenses of Systems Theory (focusing on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) Ecology of Human Development Theory), Universal Design for Learning Theory, and the Appreciative Inquiry Theory. The theories formulated from qualitative data, showed illustration of support that could lead to increased student achievement via: 1. Instructional support 2. Environment of mutual trust 3. Positive expectations and environment The history and role of afterschool programs (ASPs) are examined to better understand ASPs, their purposes, and key funding sources. This study concludes with policy and future research recommendations.The theories formulated from qualitative data, showed illustration of support that could lead to increased student achievement via: 1. Instructional support 2. Environment of mutual trust 3.
|Title||:||The Effects of an After School Program on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension|
|Author||:||Kathleen Crossman, California State University, Sacramento|