The discipline of landscape architecture encompasses many typologies, from domestic gardens and neighborhood playgrounds to urban designs and state parks. Most critical studies of the discipline tend to approach it from a historical or contemporary perspective organized around criteria such as built versus unbuilt, urban versus peripheral, or competition-sponsored versus commission-based. Very few analyses have been undertaken from the seemingly obvious jumping-off point of size. In Large Parks, Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves present eight essays by leading scholars and practitioners that engage large urban parks in depth as complex cultural spaces, where key issues oflandscape discourse, ecological challenges, social history, urban relations, and place-making are writ large. From historic parks such as New York's Central Park and Paris's Bois de Boulogne to contemporary projects such as Toronto's Downsview Park and Staten Island's Fresh Kills, to newly unveiled and yet-to-be-built projects such as Ken Smith's ambitious plans for the Orange County Great Park, Large Parks highlights the complexities and unique considerations that go into designing these massive and culturally significant works.The recreation program fared even worse: over the same period, its budget dropped 65 percent, from $20 million to $7 million.17 Things improved a ... Moreover, parks are being milked for revenue, little of which goes back into maintenance or recreation. ... in Battery Park; $2.6 million from the operator of golf courses in city parks; and half a million from BMW for unveiling a new aquot;James Bondaquot;-model BMWanbsp;...
|Author||:||Julia Czerniak, George Hargreaves, John Beardsley|
|Publisher||:||Princeton Architectural Press - 2007-07-26|