Best practice guidelines for ADHD assessment include consideration of behavior rating scale data across multiple settings and informants (DuPaul a Stoner, 2003). Research suggests mean scores on common teacher rating scales vary significantly across ethnic groups (e.g. Epstein et al., 1998; Reid et al., 2000). Presence of ODD symptoms also influences teacher ratings of ADHD through the phenomenon labeled halo effects (e.g. Abikoff, et al., 1993). No studies have examined whether these two variables (ethnic group and halo effects of ODD) interact to influence accuracy in teacher-rated ADHD symptoms. Similarly, no investigations have examined halo effects across developmental levels. The present study expanded the literature on both ethnic influences and halo effects within teacher-rated ADHD symptoms, while extending these questions to an early childhood population. Teacher ratings of ADHD, direct observations of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported ODD symptoms were collected in samples of preschool-aged (n = 108) and school-aged (n = 170) students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine the influence of oppositional behaviors on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms beyond that evidenced by directly observed ADHD symptoms. Results replicated the presence of halo effects within a school-aged sample, but found no evidence of halo effects in the preschool-aged group. Evidence of halo effects emerged in both Caucasian and ethnic minority groups and comparisons suggested teacher ratings of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in Caucasian students may be more vulnerable to halo effects as compared to ratings of ethnic minority students. Ethnic group differences were less consistent within comparisons of inattentive models. Possible explanations for these results, implications of the findings, and avenues for future research are discussed.Children who received Standard Scores of 65 or above on a least one ADHD subscale across both raters proceeded to Stage 2 of screening. ... for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT; Robins, Fein, Barton, aamp; Green, 2001) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scales (GARS; Gilliam, 1995). ... However, review of scoring procedures uncovered errors during screening assessments of 17 children, resulting in a final sampleanbsp;...
|Title||:||Halo Effects and Accuracy in Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Influence of Ethnicity and Developmental Level|
|Author||:||Shelley J. Hosterman|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2009|