The purpose of the present study was to examine the English spelling development as well as the longitudinal predictors of English spelling dictation abilities in children whose first language is English (EL1; N= 50), or who are English Language Learners (ELL; N=118). Growth curve analyses were conducted to determine whether early spelling abilities and growth could be predicted by language status (EL1 or ELL), native language group (English, Punjabi, Portuguese or Tamil), or risk status on the basis of two aspects of phonological processing; phonological awareness and naming speed, and community-level socio-economic status (SES Risk). Parallel correlational and regression analyses were also conducted for the two language status groups to identify early predictors (measured in Grades 1, 2 and 3) of Grade 6 spelling ability. The variables of interest included SES risk status, nonverbal reasoning, oral language, verbal memory, phonological awareness, and naming speed. Results indicated that instead of language status, risk status on phonological processing measures predicted spelling development. An additive effect of risk status on phonological awareness and naming speed was also noted across time intervals. Finally, despite some variability, the importance of phonological awareness and naming speed surpassed the influence that first language, SES, nonverbal reasoning, oral language proficiency, and verbal memory may exert on the development of spelling skills in school-aged children. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.The purpose of the present study was to examine the English spelling development as well as the longitudinal predictors of English spelling dictation abilities in children whose first language is English (EL1; N= 50), or who are English ...
|Title||:||Early Predictors of Later Spelling Abilities in EL1 and ELL Learners: A 6-year Longitudinal Study|
|Author||:||C. Adele Lafrance|
|Publisher||:||ProQuest - 2007|