Digital control methods for a line following robot

Digital control methods for a line following robot

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Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: The project aim was to a built a robot, controlled by a PIC microcontroller to follow a line completely autonomously and as quickly as possible. The robot meets the requirements from the RoboRama Contest , followed a T-shape course, and obtained more (safety) features. Different kinds of design features and digital algorithms were developed and tested, in order to achieve the best results. Applied project management techniques and used key skills, guaranteed the successful completion of the project, in the design and construction of hardware and software technologies. The hardware was based on a block structure with infrared sensors at the front of the vehicle. Their analogue signals were transferred to digital logic with a comparator. This information used a PIC 16F84A microcontroller to control the movement and direction of the robot with pulse width modulation (PWM). All parts were mounted on a chassis, implemented with a mechanical construction set. Batteries of 9V provided the necessary power supply. Adjustments were done through iterative steps, to come to the final result of the robot system. The main adapted design feature was the motor and steering system. First of all a separate servomotor for the steering and a single DC motor for the forward movement was fixed. Through implemented and first testing steps, this resolution lacked the required performance. Hence, the design changed to two DC motors, which offered a satisfactory solution. The electronic circuit was designed with the computer aided design tool Proteus and executed as a strip line board. The software algorithm development started with the truth table to reduce the possible events from thirty-two to the eleven applied conditions. The generated flowchart gave the program a structure and applied the truth table decision in different PWM generations. Finally, the software was written in assembler language and implemented on the PIC. Inhaltsverzeichnis:Table of Contents: iTitlei iiAbstractii iiiAcknowledgementsiii ivList of Figuresiv vList of Tablesvi viList of Abbreviationsvii viiList of Symbolsix viiiTable of Contentsx 1.Introduction1 1.1Project Aims2 1.2RoboRama Rules2 2.Specification and Analysis5 2.1Specification of the project5 2.1.1Research and definition for the project5 2.1.2Resources management7 2.2Project time plan8 3.Design of the robot9 3.1Design of the electronic hardware11 3.1.1Sensors OPD 70911 3.1.2Comparator LM 33913 3.1.3Transistor TIP 31A14 3.1.4PIC 16F8415 3.1.5Power Supply19 Regulator 780519 9V19 3.1.6Prototype strip board20 3.2Design of the electromechanical components and chassis21 3.2.1Servo - Motor21 3.2.2DC - Motor22 3.2.3Chassis24 3.3Design of the software25 3.3.1Truth table26 3.3.2Flow charts28 3.3.3Assembler program35 3.3.3MPLAP software environment42 Interface42 settings49 4.Implementation of the robot system51 4.1Realisation of the robot with servo - motor and DC - motor51 4.1.1Block Structure with servo - motor and DC - motor51 4.1.2Implemented block structure with servo - motor and DC - motor52 4.2Realisation of the robot with two DC - motors53 4.2.1Block Structure with two DC - motors53 4.2.2Implemented block structure with two DC - motors53 4.2.3Implemented Circuit Board55 schematic55 of material58 circuit board59 5.Testing of the Robot system62 5.1Testing the robot with servo - motor and DC - motor62 5.1.1Test of servo - motor62 5.1.2Test of servo - motor with robot63 5.1.3Conclusions of servo - motor test64 5.2Testing the robot with two DC - motors65 5.2.1Sensor position adjustment65 5.2.2Test of the Pulse Width Modulation66 5.2.3Behaviour test of the robot67 5.2.4Final T - Court test68 6.Overall Project Work70 6.1Development of key skills70 6.1.1Development of the Communications key skill70 6.1.2Development of the Use of IT key skill71 6.1.3Development of the Resources and time management key skill72 6.1.4Development of the Independent learning key skill73 6.2Project risks and risks assessment74 6.3Financial Factor of the Project75 6.4Critically discussion of the project76 7.Conclusions and recommendations79 7.1Conclusions79 7.1.1Project management and key skills79 7.1.2Hardware80 7.1.3Software81 7.1.4Overall Conclusions82 7.2Recommendations for further work83 Bibliography84 Book Sources84 Datasheets85 Internet Sources85 Glossary of terms87 List of Appendices88 Appendix A Main Assembler Program 89 Appendix B Assembler Include Header 93 Appendix C Datasheet Sensor OPD 704 95 Appendix D Datasheet Comparator LM 339 96 Appendix E Datasheet Power Regulator 7805 97 Appendix F Datasheet Transistor TIP 31A 98 Appendix G Datasheet main features PIC16F8X 99 Appendix H Datasheet PIC16F8X block diagram 100 Appendix I PIC16F8X instruction set 101 Appendix J Electrical circuit schematic 102 Appendix K Time schedule of the project 103 Appendix L Adapted time schedule of the project 104 Appendix M Specification of the project 105 Appendix N Example of the To-Do-List 109 Appendix O Example of a section of the vocabulary sheet 110 Appendix P University Deadlines 111 Appendix Q Example of the Loan deadlines for resources at the library 112 Appendix R Example of the tutor meeting sheet 113 Appendix S Schematic of the PIC application board 114Inhaltsverzeichnis:Table of Contents: iTitlei iiAbstractii iiiAcknowledgementsiii ivList of Figuresiv vList of Tablesvi viList of Abbreviationsvii viiList of Symbolsix viiiTable of Contentsx 1.Introduction1 1.1Project Aims2 1.2RoboRama ...

Title:Digital control methods for a line following robot
Author:Steffen Block - 2003-12-08


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