Why do nations cooperate even as they try to destroy each other? Jeffrey Legro explores this question in the context of World War II, the qtotalq war that in fact wasn't. During the war, combatant states attempted to sustain agreements limiting the use of three forms of combat considered barbarousasubmarine attacks against civilian ships, strategic bombing of civilian targets, and chemical warfare. Looking at how these restraints worked or failed to work between such fierce enemies as Hitler's Third Reich and Churchill's Britain, Legro offers a new understanding of the dynamics of World War II and the sources of international cooperation. While traditional explanations of cooperation focus on the relations between actors, Cooperation under Fire examines what warring nations seek and why they seek itathe qpreference formationq that undergirds international interaction. Scholars and statesmen debate whether it is the balance of power or the influence of international norms that most directly shapes foreign policy goals. Critically assessing both explanations, Legro argues that it was, rather, the organizational cultures of military bureaucraciesatheir beliefs and customs in waging warathat decided national priorities for limiting the use of force in World War II. Drawing on documents from Germany, Britain, the United States, and the former Soviet Union, Legro provides a compelling account of how military cultures molded state preferences and affected the success of cooperation. In its clear and cogent analysis, this book has significant implications for the theory and practice of international relations.infantry manual declared that chemical weapons would only be used in retaliation.211 In a 1938 speech K. E. ... used with the element of surprise a a quality that made no-first-use pledges especially fragile. ... on policy.215 Soviet interest in the potential of chemical weapons changed little after signing the Geneva Protocol. ... 213 See, for example, Vremennoe nastavlenie po protivo- khimicheskoi oborone (Moscow: Otdel Izdata#39; Narodnogo Kommisariata Oborony SSSR, 1936), p.
|Title||:||Cooperation under Fire|
|Author||:||Jeffrey W. Legro|
|Publisher||:||Cornell University Press - 2013-09-20|