Based on four years of extensive research, Atomic Audit is the first book to document the comprehensive costs of U.S. nuclear weapons, assembling for the first time anywhere the actual and estimated expenditures for the program since its creation in 1940. The authors provide a unique perspective on U.S. nuclear policy and nuclear weapons, tracking their development from the Manhattan Project of World War II to the present day and assessing each aspect of the program, including research, development, testing, and production; deployment; command, control, communications, and intelligence; and defensive measures. They also examine the costs of dismantling nuclear weapons, the management and disposal of large quantities of toxic and radioactive wastes left over from their production, compensation for persons harmed by nuclear weapons activities, nuclear secrecy, and the economic implications of nuclear deterrence. Atomic Audit concludes with recommendations for strengthening atomic accountability and fostering greater public understanding of nuclear weapons programs and policies.The 1996 upper-limit estimate is about $100 billion lower than that given in the 1995 report. ... The principal costs would be for converting high-level waste to solid form and disposing of it, for treating pluto- nium that now exists in unstable forms, and for ... Even with an accelerated effort, the majority of costs in the EM program will be incurred after 2006, and those sites aquot;completedaquot; by that time will requireanbsp;...
|Author||:||Stephen I. Schwartz|
|Publisher||:||Brookings Institution Press - 2011-12-01|