Low Reynolds number aerodynamics is important to a number of natural and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and insects have been of interest to biologists for years, and active study in the aerospace engineering community, motivated by interest in micro air vehicles (MAVs), has been increasing rapidly. The focus of this book is the aerodynamics associated with fixed and flapping wings. The book considers both biological flyers and MAVs, including a summary of the scaling laws which relate the aerodynamics and flight characteristics to a flyer's sizing on the basis of simple geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interplay between flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters such as the Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and reduced frequency is highlighted. The various unsteady lift enhancement mechanisms are also addressed.For example, the small fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can be compared to the Boeing 747, which weighs about 500 billion times more. ... As an illustration, consider the balance between lift and weight during steady- state flight, L= W = 1/ 2U2SCL. ... defined as the area projected when the wing is seen from above and usually the area includes the contribution from the awing areaa inside the fuselage.
|Title||:||Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers|
|Author||:||Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu|
|Publisher||:||Cambridge University Press - 2007-10-22|